SHERPA   
. . . opening access to research  
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Glossary of Open Access Abbreviations, Acronyms and Terms

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AHDS

Arts and Humanities Data Service
The Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) is a UK national service aiding the discovery, creation and preservation of digital resources in and for research, teaching and learning in the arts and humanities.
ahds.ac.uk

ALPSP

Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers
International trade association for not-for-profit publishers and those who work with them.
www.alpsp.org

ARL

Association of Research Libraries
North American university libraries
www.arl.org

ARMA

Association of Research Managers and Administrators
The professional association for research managers and administrators in the UK, with members working in universities, funding bodies, the NHS, independent research organisations, etc.
www.arma.ac.uk

ARROW

Australian Research Repositories Online to the World
The ARROW project will identify and test software or solutions to support best practice institutional digital repositories comprising e-prints, digital theses and electronic publishing. ARROW fulfils a role similar to the SHERPA project in the UK.
arrow.edu.au

ASK

Accessing and Storing Knowledge
The ASK project team is creating an open source repository system for use by students, teachers, researchers, and librarians. The system supports the storing, organisation and sharing of digital resources, such as text files, images, audio, and video.
ask.oucs.ox.ac.uk

AUA

Association of University Administrators
The professional body for higher education administrators and managers in the UK and the Republic of Ireland.
www.aua.ac.uk
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BASE

Bielefeld Academic Search Engine
An multi-disciplinary search engine to scholarly international internet resources, based at Bielefeld University, Germany
base.ub.uni-bielefeld.de/index_english.html

Berlin Declaration

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities
A set of intentions regarding Open Access to which 'sign up' was proposed at a conference in Berlin organised by the Max Planck Institute.
www.zim.mpg.de/openaccess-berlin/berlindeclaration.html

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing

Statement of suggested steps for funding agencies, researchers, publishers, scientists and librarians to follow to promote Open Access particularly within the biomedical research community.
www.earlham.edu/~peters

BIOME

Bio-Medical
BIOME is a free catalogue of hand-selected and evaluated Internet resources for students, lecturers, researchers and practitioners in the Health and Life Sciences. It is a hub of the RDN and funded by JISC.
biome.ac.uk

BioMed Central

An independent publishing house committed to providing immediate open access to peer-reviewed biomedical research
www.biomedcentral.com

BL

British Library
The UK's national library

Budapest Open Access Initiative

Statement describing Open Access and recommending self-archiving and open-access journals across all academic fields.
www.soros.org/openaccess/index.shtml
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CAF

Copyright Assignment Form
A legal form whereby an author transfers copyright of a particular work to a publisher.

CD-LOR

Community Dimensions of Learning Object Repositories
The CD-LOR project aims at identifying and analysing the factors that influence practical uptake and implementation of learning object (LO) repositories within a range of different learning communities.
academy.gcal.ac.uk/cd-lor/

CILIP

Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals
The leading professional body for librarians, information specialists and knowledge managers in the UK.
www.cilip.org.uk

CLA

Copyright Licensing Agency
A non profit-making company that licenses organisations for photocopying and scanning from magazines, books and journals.
www.cla.co.uk

CLADDIER

Citation, Location, And Deposition in Discipline and Institutional Repositories
The CLADDIER project is building and deploying a demonstration system linking publications held in two institutional repositories (Southampton University and the CCLRC, now STFC) with data holdings in the British Atmospheric Data Centre.
claddier.badc.ac.uk/trac

CLiC

Community Led Image Collections
A study that reviewed the growth of community owned digital image collections, surveyed the barriers owners face in image collection building, and recommended how national initiatives could help in sharing and embedding the collections within the wider national FE and HE sectors.
www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ltg/projects/clic/

CLOCKSS

Controlled LOCKSS
A collaborative initiative involving publishers, libraries and learned societies that will test the LOCKSS technology and social model to support a 'large dark archive' that is both fail-safe and has an acceptable process for providing continuing access for orphaned materials.
www.lockss.org/clockss

CNI

Coalition for Networked Information
An organisation dedicated to supporting the transformative promise of networked information technology for the advancement of scholarly communication and the enrichment of intellectual productivity.
www.cni.org

CRC

Centre for Research Communications
A University of Nottingham centre for research and development work with local, national and international partnerships on the provision and impact of global services in the field of research communications.
crc.nottingham.ac.uk

Cream of Science

An Open Access archive of the publications of the top ~200 Dutch science academics. Run by DARE
www.creamofscience.org

CRIS

Current Research Information Systems
[Abbreviation/Acronym]

CURL

Consortium of UK Research Libraries
Mostly universities + V&A Museum and Wellcome Trust
www.curl.ac.uk
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Daedalus

A JISC FAIR project for Glasgow University's open access services
www.lib.gla.ac.uk/daedalus

DARE

Digital Academic Repositories
A joint initiative of all the Dutch universities and Dutch national institutions to make all Dutch academic publications freely available in Open Access repositories. DARE fulfils a role similar to the SHERPA project in the UK.
www.darenet.nl/en/page/language.view/dare.watenwaarom

DAREnet

Digital Academic Repositories Network
A repository and search facility for Dutch Open Access repositories, run by DARE
www.darenet.nl/en/page/language.view/home

DC

Dublin Core
DC tends to be used as an abbreviation for the Dublin Core metadata set. (See DCMI)

DCC

Digital Curation Centre
A UK-based centre to support expertise and practice in data curation and digital preservation across communities of practice.
www.dcc.ac.uk

DCMI

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
An open forum engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models.
dublincore.org

DigiRep

Digital Repositories
Web hosting provider

DINI

Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformationen E.V.
A German organisation that coordinates and supports co-operation, recommendations and standards for online information, including open access repositories
www.dini.de

DLF

Digital Library Federation
An international US-based consortium of libraries and related agencies that are pioneering the use of electronic information technologies to extend collections and services.
www.diglib.org

DOAJ

Directory of Open Access Journals
A comprehensive database of open access journals, a quarter of which are searchable at the article level. Based at the University of Lund
www.doaj.org

DOI

Digital Object Identifier
A persistent identifer for a document that can be handled by a resolution service to direct communications to the correct server. Developed by the International DOI Foundation.
www.doi.org

DRIVER

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research
A European Open Access initiative
www.driver-repository.eu

DRM

Digital Rights Management
[Abbreviation/Acronym]
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eDissertations

Electronic Dissertations

ELF

Exclusive Licence Form
Used by a number of publishers

ePrints

(1) Primarily, any electronic version of an academic research papers. This usually relates to journal articles, but may include other formats such as electonic theses. (2) The EPrints software produced by EPrints.org for creating and maintaining institutional ePrint repositories.

ePrints UK

An RDN project that is developing a series of national, discipline-focused services that access Open Archive repositories in UK universities and colleges
www.rdn.ac.uk/projects/eprints-uk/

eprints.org

An organisation based at the University of Southampton dedicated to encouraging the spread of Open Access repositories. Their ePrints software is widely used for OA repositories.
www.eprints.org/

ETD

Electronic Theses and Dissertations
An alternative term for eTheses

eTheses

Electronic Theses

EThOS

Electronic Theses Online Service
A project aiming to deliver a fully operational, easily scaleable and financially viable prototype UK online electronic theses service, and supporting infrastructure. Funded by JISC, CURL and others.
www.ethos.ac.uk

euroCRIS

European Current Research Information Systems
An organisation established in Europe to be the internationally recognized point of reference for all matters relating to CRIS: Current Research Information Systems.
www.eurocris.org/en/
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FAIR

Focus on Access to Institutional Resources
A JISC programme, that supported Daedalus, SHERPA, Tardis and others. Now closed.
www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=programme_fair

Fedora

Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture
A software technology that may be used for building Open Access repositories. It was originally developed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia. It is now managed by Fedora Commons.
www.fedora-commons.org
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HEFCE

Higher Education Funding Council for England
Working in partnership, HEFCE promotes and funds high-quality, cost-effective teaching and research, meeting the diverse needs of students, the economy and society.
www.hefce.ac.uk

HEQC

Higher Education Quality Council
An organisation established by the bodies representing the universities and colleges to contribute to the maintenance and improvement of quality in institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom.
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IANA

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Organisation that governs top level domain names, IP addresses, etc.
www.iana.org

IDF

International DOI Foundation
Reponsible for developing the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) System
www.doi.org

IESR

Information Environment Service Registry
A machine readable registry of electronic resources. IESR aims to make it easier for other applications to discover and use materials which will help their users' learning, teaching and research.
www.iesr.ac.uk

Intute

Intute selects, catalogues and delivers high-quality Internet resources for further and higher education: the best of the Web. Formerly RDN.
www.intute.ac.uk

IRRA

Institutional Repositories & Research Assessment
A JISC project investigating and developing IR infrastructure for EPrints and DSpace to enable Research Assessment, specifically for the UK Research Assessment Exercise 2008.
irra.eprints.org

IRS

Interoperable Repository Statistics
A JISC project investigating and developing a joint approach to OAI statistics gathering and sharing.
irs.eprints.org
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JCDL

Joint Conference on Digital Libraries
A major international forum focusing on digital libraries and associated technical, practical, and social issues.
www.jcdl.org

JISC

Joint Information Systems Committee
JISC supports further and higher education by providing strategic guidance, advice and opportunities to use ICT to support teaching, learning, research and administration.
www.jisc.ac.uk

JISC DigiRep

JISC Digital Repositories
A JISC Wiki relating to Open Access repositories
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Knowledge Bank

[Not yet defined]
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LEAP

London E-prints Access Project
More properly known as SHERPA-LEAP
www.sherpa-leap.ac.uk

LIBER

Ligue des Bibliothèques Européenees de Recherche
Association of European Research Libraries: An organisation representing and promoting the interests of research libraries in Europe and assisting them to become a functional network across national boundaries.
www.libereurope.eu

Link Resolver

A service that direct users from a public online link to content that the user has a right to read, normally by virtue of institutionally subscribed resources - e.g. Ex-Libris SFX

LOCKSS

Lots Of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe
An alliance aiming to preserve electronic documents by having lots of duplicates stored in different repositories
www.lockss.org
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M2M

Machine-to-Machine
Shorthand for machine-to-machine communications

Metadata

Data that describes other data. For items in open access repositories, this usually consists of a full biblographic reference, abstract, keywords, and similar information.

METS

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
The METS schema is a standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using XML.
www.loc.gov/standards/mets

MIDESS

Management of Images in a Distributed Environment with Shared Services
A JISC funded project that is exploring the management of digitised content in institutional and cross-institutional contexts through the development of a digital repository infrastructures. It is addressing how support can be provided for the use of digital content in a learning and research context, in an integrated manner. It will also explore how use and management of digital content can be joined up in a national context.
www.leeds.ac.uk/library/midess/
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NECOBELAC

Network of Collaboration Between Europe and Latin America-Caribbean Countries
An EC-funded project aiming to improve scientific writing, promote open access publication models, and foster technical and scientific cooperation between Europe and Latin American Caribbean (LAC) countries.
www.necobelac.eu

New Universities

Former UK Polytechnics, who changed their status to Universities in 1990s

NIH

National Institutes of Health
The United States government's medical research agency
www.nih.gov

NSF

National Science Foundation
United States government funding organisation
www.nsf.gov
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OA

Open Access
[Abbreviation/Acronym]

OAI

Open Archives Initiative
An organisation dedicated to managing and promoting the Open Source trademark for the good of the community.
www.openarchives.org

OAI-PMH

Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
Widely used, if not de facto standard protocol for harvesting metadata from OA repositories. Website includes a tutorial.
www.oaforum.org

OAIS

Open Archival Information Model
Not be confused with OAI, this model relates to good practice in digital archives, with a view to long-term preservation.

OAIster

Combined searching of multiple repositories - from University of Michigan Library
oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/

OAPEN

Open Access Publishing in European Networks
An initiative of a consortium of University-based academic publishers for the Open Access publishing of monographs in the humanities and social sciences
www.oapen.org

OCLC

Online Computer Library Center
OCLC is a major commercial provider of library cataloging services and runs the Online Union Catalog. Based in Dublin, Ohio, USA.
www.oclc.org

ODF

OpenDocument Format
"OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications" is a file format for electronic office documents, such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations, databases and word processing documents.
opendocument.xml.org

Open Repository

A service from BioMed Central using DSpace software that builds, launches, hosts and maintains institutional repositories for organisations that cannot their own due to cost and/or infrastructure constraints.
www.openrepository.com

OpenAIRE

Open Access Infrastructure Research for Europe
A consortium aiming to support the implementation of Open Access in Europe.
www.openaire.eu

OpenDOAR

Open Directory of Open Access Repositories
Joint project of the Universities of Nottingham and Lund to create an authoritative reference database of Open Access repositories worldwide.
www.opendoar.org

OpenURL

A standard for linking URLs that can be processed by link resolvers to direct users to the most appropriate copy of a resource. Originally created by Ex-Libris
www.exlibrisgroup.com/sfx_openurl.htm

OSI

Open Source Initiative
A non-profit corporation dedicated to managing and promoting the OSI Certified Open Source Software.
www.opensource.org

OSI

Open Society Institute
A private operating and grantmaking foundation, aims to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform - founded by George Soros
www.soros.org

Overlay Journal

An online journal in which the individual articles reside in distributed institutional repositories, with editorial functions mediating peer review and qaulity certification.
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PEER

Publishing and the Ecology of European Research
An EC-funded project investigating the effects of the large-scale, systematic depositing of authors’ final peer-reviewed manuscripts on reader access, author visibility, and journal viability.
www.peerproject.eu

PLANETS

Preservation and Long-term Access through Networked Services
Project to build practical services and tools to help ensure long-term access to our digital cultural and scientific assets.

PLATTER

Planning Tool for Trusted Electronic Repositories
Tool that provides a basis for a digital repository to plan the development of its goals, objectives and performance targets.
www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu/platter/

PLoS

Public Library of Science
A series of open access scientific journals
www.plos.org

Postprint

The final version of an academic article or other publication - after it has been peer-reviewed and revised into its final form by the author. As a general term this covers both the author's final version and the version as published, with formatting and copy-editing changes in place.

Preprint

In the context of Open Access, a preprint is a draft of an academic article or other publication before it has been submitted for peer-review or other quality assurance procedure as part of the publication process. Preprints cover initial and successive drafts of articles, working papers or draft conference papers.

PRESERV

PReservation Eprint SERVices
A JISC project investigating and developing infrastructural digital preservation services for institutional repositories.
preserv.eprints.org
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RAE

Research Assessment Exercise
A series of exercises conducted nationally to assess the quality of UK research and to inform the selective distribution of public funds for research by the four UK higher education funding bodies.
www.rae.ac.uk

RCS

Research Communications Strategy
A JISC funded activity to investigate and coordinate many of the emerging themes, ideas and developments in the field of research communications at a strategic level.
crc.nottingham.ac.uk/projects/rcs/

RCUK

Research Councils UK
www.rcuk.ac.uk

RDN

Research Discovery Network
The former name for Intute (q.v.).
www.rdn.ac.uk

RepoMMan

Repository Metadata and Management project
The RepoMMan Project is developing a tool which will allow users to interact with a Fedora digital repository as part of their natural workflow.
www.hull.ac.uk/esig/repomman/

Repository

A website that aims to collect, preserve and proffer electronically the intellectual output of a subject or organisation without charge to the World

Repository Bridge

A project that examined the interaction between a regional theses repository based at the National Library of Wales and pilot institutional repositories at UW Aberystwyth and UW Swansea. It developed repository software and tools allowing for full interaction between the DSpace or eprints repositories and FEDORA open source systems to migrate and store items in a persistent manner.
www.inf.aber.ac.uk/bridge/

RIN

Research Information Network
The Research Information Network gives strategic leadership in the UK to establish a national framework for research information provision, and to generate effective and sustainable arrangements for meeting the information needs of the professional research community.
www.rin.ac.uk

RIOJA

Repository Interface for Overlaid Journal Archives
A JISC project investigating overlay journals, in particular the overlay of quality assurance onto papers deposited to and stored in eprints repositories.
www.ucl.ac.uk/ls/rioja/

RLG

Research Libraries Group
An international not-for-profit membership organisation of libraries, archives and museums, working together to create solutions to the challenges of information access and management.
www.rlg.org

RoMEO

Rights MEtadata for Open archiving
The original Loughborough University project from which SHERPA/RoMEO sprang
www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo

RSP

Repositories Support Project
JISC-funded project supporting the development and growth of the UK repositories network.
www.rsp.ac.uk

Russell Group

An association of 19 major research-intensive universities of the UK, formed in 1994 at the Hotel Russell, London
www.russellgroup.ac.uk/index1.html
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SCONUL

Standing Council of National and University Libraries
Organisation promoting excellence in library services in higher education and national libraries across the UK and Ireland.
www.sconul.ac.uk

Self-archiving

The process by which an academic author deposits the metadata (bibliographic reference, abstract, etc.) and an electronic full text for one or more of his/her publications in an open access repository

SFC

Scottish Funding Council
A single body providing a strategic overview of tertiary education in Scotland
www.sfc.ac.uk

SHEFC

Scottish Higher Education Funding Council
Now the Scottish Funding Council

SHERPA

Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access
UK Project dedicated to promoting the implementation and use of Open Access repositories
www.sherpa.ac.uk

SHERPA DP

SHERPA Data Preservation
Project looking into the long-term preservation issues associated with Open Access repositories
www.sherpadp.org.uk

SHERPA Plus

Successor project to SHERPA, with remit of investigating and encouraging the expansion of repositories.

SHERPA/RoMEO

SHERPA Rights MEtadata for Open archiving
Database of the copyright transfer policies of academic publishers and their journals.
www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php

SHERPA-LEAP

SHERPA London E-prints Access Project
Consortium of open access e-print repositories developed for seven University of London institutions. The Consortium is led by UCL.
www.sherpa-leap.ac.uk

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol
A web services-based protocol for querying Internet indexes or databases and returning search results

SOAP

Study of Open Access Publishing
An EC-funded project studying the risks, opportunities and essential requirements of the new open access business models emerging from the shift from print to digital documents.
project-soap.eu

SPARC

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
Worldwide
www.arl.org/sparc

SPARC Europe

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, Europe
The European wing of SPARC
www.sparceurope.org

SPECTRa

Submission, Preservation and Exposure of Chemistry Teaching and Research datA
An 18-month project at the University of Cambridge to create a set of OA digital repository tools for the chemical community, using DSpace software.
www.lib.cam.ac.uk/spectra

StORe

Source-to-Output Repositories
An initiative to begin the process of adding significant value to the intellectual products of academic research, and the new knowledge established as a consequence of it, through enabling the repositories of published reports and papers to interact directly with the repositories of source data from which, in general, they are derived.
jiscstore.jot.com/WikiHome

SURF

SURF is the Dutch higher education and research partnership organisation for network services and information and communications technology.
www.surf.nl/en/home
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TARDis

Targetting Academic Research for Deposit and Disclosure
Completed project at Southampton University - part of JISC's FAIR initiative
tardis.eprints.org

TrustDR

Trust in Digital Repositories
TrustDR is a project to examine the practical issues in setting up digital rights management systems in repositories of learning objects.
trustdr.ulster.ac.uk
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UCISA

Universities and Colleges Information Systems Association
UCISA represents almost all the major UK universities and higher education colleges and has a growing membership among further education colleges, other educational institutions and commercial organisations interested in information systems and technology in UK education, providing a network of contacts and a powerful lobbying voice.
www.ucisa.ac.uk

UCL

University College London
[Not yet defined]
www.ucl.ac.uk

UK LOCKSS

An alliance of UK academic libraries that are committed to identify, negotiate, and build local archives of material using LOCKSS that librarians and academic scholars deem significant
edina.ac.uk/lockss/

UKCoRR

United Kingdom Council of Research Repositories
Professional organisation for UK Open Access repository adminstrators and managers.

UKLON

UK Office for Library and Information Networking
A centre of expertise in digital information management, providing advice and services to the library, information, education and cultural heritage communities - based at the University of Bath]
www.ukoln.ac.uk

UKSG

UK Serials Group
Concerned with printed and electronic serials (academic).
www.uksg.org

UUK

Universities UK
[Not yet defined]
www.universitiesuk.ac.uk
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VERSIONS

Versions of Eprints - user Requirements Study and Investigation Of the Need for Standards
A project addressing the issues and uncertainties relating to versions of academic papers in digital repositories, to help build trust in open access content among all stakeholders.
library-2.lse.ac.uk/versions

VIF

Version Identification Framework
A project working towards creating a framework for the identification of versions of objects in digital repositories, particularly addressing issues relating to versions of scholarly works.
www.lse.ac.uk/library/vif
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Wellcome Trust

The world's largest medical research charity funding research into human and animal health
www.wellcome.ac.uk

White Rose

Consortium of Yorkshire universities: Sheffield, Leeds and York
eprints.whiterose.ac.uk
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Z39.50

A computer-to-computer communications protocol designed to support searching and retrieval of information - full-text documents, bibliographic data, images, multimedia - in a distributed network environment.

Zwolle Group

A Dutch steering group formed by SURF to follow up innovations in copyright management for scholarship.
www.surf.nl/copyright

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